Advertisement

Fertility regulation in nursing women: III. Short-term influence of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive upon lactation and infant growth

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      The study was designed to test the short-term influence of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive upon lactation and infant growth when treatment was initiated at day 30 postpartum. The contraceptive tested contained ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg and levonorgestrel 0.15 mg. Two control groups were formed by women who received either an oral placebo or an injectable placebo at day 30 postpartum. An exacting list of requirements for admission and continuation in the study was applied to all groups.
      The oral contraceptive group had a lower percentage of cases in exclusive breast-feeding at day 91 postpartum when compared to both control groups. Infants in the oral contraceptive group showed a significantly lower average absolute weight at days 61 and 91 postpartum and a significantly lower average daily weight increase during the first month of treatment when compared to both control groups. It was concluded that the oral contraceptive tested had a negative influence upon lactation and child growth.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Contraception
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Chopra J.G.
        Effect of steroid contraceptives on lactation.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1972; 25: 1202-1214
        • Thompson A.M.
        • Hytten F.E.
        • Black A.E.
        Lactation and reproduction.
        Bull. Wld. Health. Org. 1975; 52: 337-349
        • Gellén J.S.
        Side effects of steroid contraception.
        J. Biosoc. Sci. Suppl. 1977; 4: 149-164
        • Hull V.J.
        The effects of hormonal contraceptives on lactation: Current findings, methodological considerations and future priorities.
        Stud. Fam. Plann. 1981; 12: 134-155
        • Laukaran V.H.
        Contraceptive choices for lactating women: Suggestions for postpartum family planning.
        Stud. Fam. Plann. 1981; 12: 156-163
        • Harfouche J.K.
        Appearance of contraceptive steroids in human milk: Effects on the child.
        J. Biosoc. Sci. Suppl. 1977; 4: 165-179
        • Toddywalla V.S.
        • Joshi L.
        • Virkar K.
        Effect of contraceptive steroids on human lactation.
        Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1977; 127: 245-249
        • Campodónico I.
        • Guerrero B.
        • Landa L.
        Effect of a low dose oral contraceptive (150 μg levonorgestrel and 30 μg ethinyl estradiol) on lactation.
        Clin. Therap. 1978; 1: 454-459
        • Bernard R.M.
        Studies on lactation and contraception in WHO's research programme.
        J. Biosoc. Sci. Suppl. 1977; 4: 113-120
        • Díaz S.
        • Peralta O.
        • Juez G.
        • Salvatierra A.M.
        • Casado M.E.
        • Durán E.
        • Croxatto H.B.
        Fertility regulation in nursing women: I. The probability of conception in full nursing women living in an urban setting.
        J. Biosoc. Sci. 1982; 14: 329-342
      1. Croxatto, H.B., Díaz, S., Peralta, O., Juez, G., Casado, M.E., Salvatierra, A.M. and Durán, E.: Fertility regulation in nursing women: II. Comparative performance of progesterone implants versus placebo and Copper T. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., in press.

        • Nelson W.E.
        2nd ed. Textbook of Pediatrics. W.B. Saunders Co.,, Philadelphia1964: 42
        • Nilsson S.
        • Nygren K.G.
        • Johansson E.D.B.
        d-Norgestrel concentrations in maternal plasma, milk and child plasma during administration of oral contraceptives to nursing women.
        Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1977; 14: 178-184
        • Nilsson S.
        • Nygren K.G.
        Transfer of contraceptive steroids to human milk.
        Res. Reproduc. 1979; 11: 1-2