Advertisement

Quantitation of menstrual blood loss — Further evaluation of the alkaline hematin method

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      Investigation of reliability and practicality of a method for measuring menstrual blood loss was required for research into the problem of uterine hemorrhage caused by intrauterine contraceptive devices. The method selected for evaluation was the photometric alkaline hematin procedure. Our studies of this technic indicate a sensitivity to less than 0.1 ml of blood, within-batch precision of 5% or less (2 C.V.), and an accuracy of measuring human menstrual blood from most types of sanitary devices generally within ± 5%. The method appears to be specific for menstrual blood and independent of other materials in genital fluids. Menstrual discharge may be stored for at lease one month prior to determination without alteration of results. The procedure, once optimized for our purposes, was found to be very practical.
      Using this technic, blood loss was measured during 15 menstrual periods in 6 subjects. The results were consistent with the available literature which indicates that maximum normal menstrual blood flow is between 60 and 80 ml, and the mean is near 30 ml. Variation of measured flow between consecutive menstrual cycles in some individuals (both normal and menorrhagic) reveals the necessity for repeated measurements to properly assess average blood flow in certain cases.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Contraception
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Tietze C.
        • Lewit S.
        Studies in Family Planning.
        in: Evaluation of intrauterine devices: Ninth progress report of the cooperative statistical program. The Population Council, New York, N. YJuly 1970
        • Guttorm E.
        Menstrual bleeding with intrauterine contraceptive devices.
        Acta Obstet. Gynec. Scand. 1971; 50: 9
        • Hallberg L.
        • Högdahl A.
        • Nillson L.
        • Rybo G.
        Menstrual blood loss — A population study.
        Acta Obstet. et. Gynec. Scandinav. 1966; 45: 320
        • Hoppe-Seyler G.
        Brodersen and Rudolph: Über den blutverlust bei der menstruation.
        Zlschr. f. physiol. Chem. 1904; 42: 545
        • Barer A.P.
        • Fowler W.M.
        The blood loss during normal menstruation.
        Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 1936; 31: 979
        • Baldwin R.M.
        • Whalley P.J.
        • Pritchard J.A.
        Measurement of menstrual blood loss.
        Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 1961; 81: 739
        • Tauxe W.N.
        Quantitation of menstrual blood loss: A radioactive method utilizing a counting dome.
        J. Nuc. Med. 1962; 3: 282
        • Hytten F.E.
        • Cheyne G.A.
        • Klopper A.I.
        Iron loss at menstruation.
        J. Obstet. Gynec. Brit. Comm. 1964; 71: 255
        • Jacobs A.
        • Butler E.B.
        Menstrual blood loss in iron-deficiency anemia.
        Lancet. 1965; 2: 407
        • Hallberg L.
        • Nillson L.
        Constancy of individual menstrual blood loss.
        Acta Obstet. et. Gynec. Scandinav. 1964; 43: 352
        • Hallberg L.
        • Nillson L.
        Determination of menstrual blood loss.
        Scandinav. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 1964; 16: 244
        • Shaw Jr., S.T.
        • El Sahwi S.Y.
        • Moyer D.L.
        Menstrual blood quantitation in the rhesus monkey.
        Ferti1. Steril. 1972; 23: 257
        • Millis J.
        The iron losses of healthy women during consecutive menstrual cycles.
        Med. J. Aust. 1951; 2: 874
        • Rankin G.L.S.
        • Veall N.
        • Huntsman R.G.
        • Liddell J.
        Measurement with 51Cr of red cell loss in menorrhagia.
        Lancet. 1962; 1: 567
        • Schmidt R.M.
        The effect of norethynodrel with mestranol on menstrual fluid volume.
        Fertil. Steril. 1966; 17: 381
        • Price D.C.
        • Forsyth D.M.
        • Cohn S.H.
        • Cronkite E.P.
        The study of menstrual and other blood loss, and consequent iron deficiency, by Fe59 whole body counting.
        Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 1964; 90: 51
        • Holt J.M.
        • Mayet F.G.H.
        • Warner G.T.
        • Callender S.T.
        Measurement of blood loss by means of a whole body counter.
        Brit. Med. J. 1967; 4: 86
        • Thomas J.D.R.
        The determination of menstrual iron loss.
        Biochem. Med. 1970; 3: 311