This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
The cervical bacterial flora of 18 healthy, parous, sexually active women was analysed before, and 3–5 months after insertion of a copperreleasing intrauterine device (IUD) and after long-term use of an IUD for 3–5.5 years in another nine women. No significant differences were found in the number of aerobic bacteria isolated before or after IUD insertion or after long-term use of an IUD. In contrast to aerobic bacteria, significantly more anaerobes were isolated in the cervix of women having used an IUD for several years when compared to those using barrier contraception with a condom. None of the women had clinical signs of pelvic infection and a cervical bacterial flora rich in anaerobes can be regarded as a normal finding in healthy sexually active women using an IUD for contraception.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Contraception
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- The risk of pelvic inflammatory disease in women using intrauterine contraceptive devices as compared to non-users.Lancet. 1976; 2: 221-224
- Effect of age on pelvic inflammatory disease in nulliparous women using a Copper 7 intrauterine contraceptive device.Br. Med. J. 1980; 281: 114
- Women's health study. Association between intrauterine device and pelvic inflammatory disease.Obstet. Gynecol. 1981; 57: 269-276
- PID associated with fertility regulating agents.Contraception. 1984; 30: 1-21
- Tubal infertility and the intrauterine device.N. Engl. J. Med. 1985; 312: 941-947
- Residues of pelvic inflammatory disease in intrauterine device users: A result of the intrauterine device or Chlamydia trachomatis infection?.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1986; 154: 497-503
- Contraception and the ethiology of pelvic inflammatory disease: new perspectives.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1980; 138: 852-860
- Bacterial flora of the cervix in women using different methods of contraception.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1986; 154: 520-524
- Evidence for microbial transfer by spermatozoa.Obstet. Gynecol. 1982; 59: 556-559
- Asymptomatic bacteriospermia in fertile and infertile men.Fertil. Steril. 1981; 36: 88-91
- Clinical and microbiological investigation of women with acute salpingitis and their consorts.Br. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1986; 93: 869-880
- Microbiology of vaginitis associated with the intrauterine contraceptive device.Br. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1984; 91: 917-923
- IUDs with or without strings.in: Zatuchni G.I. Goldsmith A. Sciarra J.J. Intrauterine Contraception: Advances and Future Prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia1984: 420-426
- IUD and PID — a two year comparative study of copper-silver devices inserted with and without tail.in: Advances in contraceptive Delivery systems. C.D.S. International Symposium Genetics of Fertility Regulation, Nairobi, KenyaSeptember 22–25, 1985: 355
- Five years' experience of intrauterine contraception with Nova-T and Copper-T-200.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1983; 147: 885-892
- Correlation between serum antichlamydial antibodies and tubal factor as a cause of infertility.Fertil. Steril. 1982; 38: 553-558
- The pathogenic mechanisms of pelvic infection.in: Zatuchni G.I. Goldsmith A. Sciarra J.J. Intrauterine Contraception: Advances and Future Prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia1984: 450-471
Accepted: November 9, 1987
Received: October 28, 1987
© 1987 Published by Elsevier Inc.