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Recovery of fertility and outcome of planned pregnancies after the removal of NORPLANTR subdermal implants or Copper-T IUDs

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      Abstract

      The recovery of fertility after discontinuation of NORPLANTR implant use was assessed in ninety women who stated a desire for a new child at the time of removal. Three subjects were lost to follow-up after removal. The cumulative probability of conception in the remaining 87 women was 25, 49, 73 and 86 percent at one, three, six and twelve months after removal, respectively. Nine observations were censored either because of the use of a contraceptive method soon after removal of the implants (n = 7) or separation (n = 2). All other cases were pregnant at the end of two years with exception of three subjects where a male factor for infertility was present. There was no significant correlation between the length of NORPLANTR use and the length of the interval from removal to conception. A significantly higher frequency of intervals longer than 6 months was observed among women older than 30 years as compared to younger women. Pathology during pregnancy was cholestasia (n = 5), hypertension (n = 1) and gestational diabetes (n = 1). The outcome was term delivery in 59 cases, premature delivery in 4 cases, and spontaneous abortion in 7 cases. One woman is still pregnant and the outcome is unknown in 4 cases. One premature infant died. A contemporary control group of Copper Tusers enrolled under the same criteria as NORPLANTR implant users provided 44 women who had the device removed to become pregnant. The cumulative probability of pregnancy was 27, 69, 84 and 89 at one, three, six and twelve months and all were pregnant by the end of the second year. Six censored observations occurred because of the use of another contraceptive method after removal (n = 3) or loss to follow-up (n = 3). The outcome of pregnancy was term delivery in 23 cases and abortion in 7 cases. Recovery of fertility occurred at a normal rate after NORPLANTR implant removal and the incidence of problems detected in the ensuing pregnancy were within the expected range for Chilean women.
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