Copper T380A is one of the most commonly prescribed intrauterine devices (IUDs). However, there are few reports of its systemic health effects. This study evaluates the association between the use of T380A IUD and blood Cu levels in a group of Mexican users.
Eighty-six T380A users and eight nonusers were recruited. Blood Cu levels were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometic technique.
In IUD users, mean blood Cu level was significantly higher than in nonusers, 216.63 vs. 107.47 ��g/dL (p���.001), and above the normal blood Cu level range of 80���160 ��g/dL. No significant difference in blood Cu levels was observed by age or length of time of IUD use.
The observed higher blood Cu levels among T380A user stands out in sharp contrast to previous reports of other types of Cu IUDs. Further research should evaluate if the observed levels are associated to toxic effects with the general population or special groups.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Contraception
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Contraception through the use of intrauterine metals. I. Copper as an adjunct to the ��T�� device.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1971; 109: 771-774
Population Information Program. Population Reports. Dispositivos intrauterinos. Los DIU: un nuevo examen. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University, 1988. Series B;5:1���31.
- Intrauterine contraception with the copper-T device. 1. Effect on trace elements in the endometrium, cervical mucus and plasma.Contraception. 1972; 6: 37-54
- Copper release from copper-T intrauterine devices.Contraception. 1976; 14: 25-38
- The multi-sleeved copper T model TCu220C: effect of long-term use on corrosion and dissolution of copper.Contraception. 1987; 35: 163-170
- Chemical reactions of the copper intrauterine device.Fertil Steril. 1972; 1: 8-23
- The effect of intrauterine devices containing zinc and copper on their levels in serum.Fertil Steril. 1978; 1: 30-34
- Serum copper in long-term users of copper intrauterine devices.Fertil Steril. 1980; 1: 32-35
- Copper toxicity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant nutrients.Toxicology. 2003; 1: 189-194
- Stable isotope studies of the effect of dietary copper on copper absorption and excretion.Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998; 258: 21-28
- Elsevier, New York1991: 231-237 Nutritional biochemistry and metabolism with clinical applications. 2nd ed.
- Copper biochemistry and molecular biology.Am J Clin Nutr. 1996; 5: 797-811
- Copper status and urinary and salivary copper in young men at three levels of dietary copper.Am J Clin Nutr. 1990; 51: 658-664
- Bioavailability of cooper.Am J Clin Nutr. 1996; 5: 821S-829S
- Biological variation of Zn, Cu, and Mg in serum of healthy subjects.Clin Chem. 1990; 36: 2140-2141
- Tabla de valores de referencia en fluidos biol��gicos.Instituto Nacional de Toxicolog��a de Sevilla, Sevilla2000
- Trace elements in human clinical specimens: evaluation of literature data to identify reference values.Clin Chem. 1988; 34: 474-481
- Interactions des acids nucleiques avec les metaux.Can J Spectrosc. 1981; 26: 165-179
- Interaction of metal ions with polynucleotides and related compounds. XII. The relative effect of various metal ions on DNA helicity.J Am Chem Soc. 1968; 90: 7323-7328
- Rapid transcriptional auto-regulation of yeast metalloregulatory transcription factor is essential for high-level copper detoxification.Genes Dev. 1993; 7: 1824-1835
- Possible role of oxidative damage in metal-induced carcinogenesis.Cancer Invest. 1995; 13: 411-430
- Acute copper sulfate poisoning.Am J Med. 1965; 39: 849-854
- Trace element risk assessment: essentiality vs. toxicity.Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004; 38: 232-242
- Characterization of the Wilson disease gene encoding a P-type copper transporting ATPase: genomic organization, alternative splicing, and structure/function predictions.Hum Mol Genet. 1994; 3: 1647-1656
- Working Group, Bohn1985: 155-164 Analysis of hazardous substances in biological materials.
- Studies on the mode of action of the copper-T-device.Acta Endocrinol. 1972; 71: 25-26
- Gastrointestinal symptoms and blood indicators of copper load in apparently healthy adults undergoing controlled copper exposure 1���3.Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77: 646-650
- The contraceptive choice for a Wilson's disease patient with chronic liver disease.Contraception. 1997; 56: 241-244
Published online: June 09, 2005
Accepted: February 17, 2005
Received in revised form: February 15, 2005
Received: November 23, 2004
© 2005 Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.