Original research article| Volume 76, ISSUE 1, P40-44, July 2007

Monthly injectable contraceptives and the risk of all cancers combined and site-specific cancers in Shanghai



      The risk of 12 types of cancer in relation to use of monthly injectable contraceptives was assessed in a prospective study in Shanghai, China.


      From 1989 to 1991, an in-person interview was administered to 267,400 female textile workers to ascertain information on risk factors for breast cancer, contraceptive use and induced abortions. The cohort was followed until July 2000 for incident cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to calculate incidence rate ratios for specific types of cancer in women who ever had used monthly injectable contraceptives and by length of use.


      There was a reduced risk of uterine corpus cancer for women who had ever used monthly injectable contraceptives. No association was observed between the use of monthly injectable contraceptives and the risk of all cancers combined and for any of the 11 other cancersconsidered.


      There appears to be no evidence of an increased risk of cancer after exposure to monthly injectable contraceptives in our study.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Contraception
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Gallo M.F.
        • Grimes D.A.
        • Schulz K.F.
        • d'Arcangues C.
        • Lopez L.M.
        Combination injectable contraceptives for contraception.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005; : CD004568
        • Skegg D.C.
        Monthly combined injectable contraceptives and neoplasia.
        Contraception. 1994; 49: 435-439
        • Thomas D.B.
        • Molina R.
        • Rodriguez Cuevas H.
        • et al.
        Monthly injectable steroid contraceptives and cervical carcinoma.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1989; 130: 237-247
        • Rosenblatt K.A.
        • Gao D.L.
        • Ray R.M.
        • et al.
        Induced abortions and the risk of all cancers combined and site-specific cancers in Shanghai.
        Cancer Causes Control. 2006; 17: 1275-1280
        • Thomas D.B.
        • Gao D.L.
        • Ray R.M.
        • et al.
        Randomized trial of breast self-examination in Shanghai: final results.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94: 1445-1457
        • Sang G.W.
        Pharmacodynamic effects of once-a-month combined injectable contraceptives.
        Contraception. 1994; 49: 361-385
        • Ye Z.
        • Gao D.L.
        • Qin Q.
        • Ray R.M.
        • Thomas D.B.
        Breast cancer in relation to induced abortions in a cohort of Chinese women.
        Br J Cancer. 2002; 87: 977-981
      1. Parkin D.M. Whelan S.L. Ferlay J. Teppo L. Thomas D.B. 1st ed. Cancer incidence in five continents. vol. VIII. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France2005
        • Breslow N.E.
        • Day N.E.
        Statistical methods for cancer research.
        1st ed. The design and analysis of cohort studies. vol. II. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France1987
      2. Rothman K.J. Grimes D. Modern epidemiology. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA1998
        • Cogliano V.
        • Grosse Y.
        • Baan R.
        • et al.
        Carcinogenicity of combined oestrogen���progestagen contraceptives and menopausal treatment.
        Lancet Oncol. 2005; 6: 552-553
        • Lacey J.V.
        • Colditz G.A.
        • Schottenfeld D.
        Exogenous hormones.
        in: Scottenfeld D. Fraumeni J.F. Cancer epidemiology andprevention. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, New York2006: 468-488
        • Fan F.
        • Devesa S.S.
        • Chow W.H.
        • et al.
        Cancer incidence trends in urban Shanghai, 1972���1994: an update.
        Int J Cancer. 1999; 83: 453-540