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���Conflict of interest of authors: Dr. Olav Meirik, Dr. Alexandre Peregoudov, Dr. Gilda Piaggio, Dr. Max Petzold: None. Dr. Patrick J Rowe: occasional consultancy services to Contrel Research.
������The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the decisions or policies of the World Health Organization.
���Funding: UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction.