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Factors affecting mortality in a large cohort study with special reference to oral contraceptive use

      Abstract

      Background

      This analysis updates mortality in the Oxford-Family Planning Association (Oxford-FPA) contraceptive study, with emphasis on oral contraceptive (OC) use.

      Study design

      The Oxford-FPA study includes 17,032 women recruited from 1968���1974 at contraceptive clinics, aged 25���39 years, using OCs a diaphragm or an intrauterine device. Follow-up has been to March 2009; by then, 1715 women had died.

      Results

      The rate ratio (RR) for overall mortality was 0.87 (CI 0.79���0.96), comparing ever-users of OCs with never-users. The RR for fatal cervical cancer was increased (7.3), but the CIs were very wide (1.2���305). There was no association between ever-use of OCs and mortality from breast cancer (RR 1.0, CI 0.8���1.2), nor was fatal breast cancer related to duration of OC use. OC use strongly protected against death from other uterine cancer and ovarian cancer; RRs for ever-use of OCs were 0.3 (CI 0.1���0.8) and 0.4 (CI 0.3���0.6), respectively. Protection increased with duration of OC use and persisted more than 20 years after cessation. Circulatory disease mortality was not increased, the RR for ever-use of OCs being 0.9 (CI 0.7���1.1). The overall mortality RR for all women smoking 15+ cigarettes daily was 2.25 (CI 1.99���2.53) and, for all women with a body mass index of 28+ kg/m2, was 1.33 (CI 1.07���1.64).

      Conclusions

      Long-term follow-up strongly suggests that OC use slightly reduces all cause mortality.

      Keywords

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