Advertisement

Does body mass index or weight perception affect contraceptive use?

      Abstract

      Objective

      Overweight and obese women may avoid contraceptive methods they believe are associated with weight gain. The objective of this study was to examine the role of weight and weight perception on contraceptive use.

      Study design

      Using cross-sectional data from the MyNewOptions study, we analyzed contraceptive use among 987 privately insured, sexually active women aged 18–40 years. Contraception was categorized into three groups: (1) long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), (2) non-LARC prescription methods and (3) nonprescription methods/no method. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the effect of body mass index category and weight perception on contraceptive use while controlling for pregnancy intentions, sexual behavior and sociodemographic characteristics.

      Results

      Eighty-three (8.4%) women were using LARCs, 490 (49.6%) women were using non-LARC prescription methods and 414 (42.0%) were using nonprescription methods or no method. In the adjusted multinomial model, overweight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85–7.98) and obese women (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.18–6.72) were significantly more likely to use LARCs compared to normal-weight women. There were greater adjusted odds of overweight and obese women using nonprescription methods/no method compared with non-LARC prescription methods, but this finding did not reach statistical significance. Weight perception was not associated with contraceptive use.

      Conclusion

      In this study sample, overweight and obese women were more likely to use LARCs than normal-weight women. It will be important to further understand how weight influences women and providers' views on contraception in order to better assist women with individualized, patient-centered contraceptive decision making.

      Implications

      Overweight and obese women may be reluctant to use contraceptive methods they believe are associated with weight gain (i.e., pills, shot), but how that affects contraceptive use is unclear. Compared with normal-weight women, overweight and obese women in this study were more likely to use LARCs than non-LARC prescription methods.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Contraception
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ogden CL
        • Carroll MD
        • Kit BK
        • Flegal KM
        Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012.
        JAMA. 2014; 311: 806-814
        • Venkat P
        • Masch R
        • Ng E
        • Cremer M
        • Richman S
        • Arslan A
        Knowledge and beliefs about contraception in urban Latina women.
        J Community Health. 2008; 33: 357-362
        • Schraudenbach A
        • McFall S
        Contraceptive use and contraception type in women by body mass index category.
        Womens Health Issues. 2009; 19: 381-389
        • Chuang CH
        • Velott DL
        • Weisman CS
        • Sciamanna CN
        • Legro RS
        • Chinchilli VM
        • et al.
        Reducing unintended pregnancies through Web-based reproductive life planning and contraceptive action planning among privately insured women: study protocol for the MyNewOptions randomized, controlled trial.
        Womens Health Issues. 2015; 25: 641-648
        • Trussell J
        Contraceptive failure in the United States.
        Contraception. 2011; 83: 397-404
        • Weisman CS
        • Lehman EB
        • Legro RS
        • Velott DL
        • Chuang CH
        How do pregnancy intentions affect contraceptive choices when cost is not a factor? A study of privately insured women.
        Contraception. 2015; 92: 501-507
        • Kohn JE
        • Lopez PM
        • Simons HR
        Weight and body mass index among female contraceptive clients.
        Contraception. 2015; 91: 470-473
        • Scott-Ram R
        • Chor J
        • Bhogireddy V
        • Keith L
        • Patel A
        Contraceptive choices of overweight and obese women in a publically funded hospital: possible clinical implications.
        Contraception. 2012; 86: 122-126
        • Weisman CS
        • Chuang CH
        Making the most of the Affordable Care Act's contraceptive coverage mandate for privately-insured women.
        Womens Health Issues. 2014; 24: 465-468
        • Sobel L
        • Salganicoff A
        • Kurani N
        Coverage of contraceptive services.
        The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015
        • Society of Family P
        • Higginbotham S
        Contraceptive considerations in obese women: release date 1 September 2009, SFP guideline 20091.
        Contraception. 2009; 80: 583-590
        • Lopez LM
        • Grimes DA
        • Chen M
        • Westhoff C
        • Edelman A
        • Helmerhorst FM
        Hormonal contraceptives for contraception in overweight or obese women.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 4CD008452
        • Robinson JA
        • Burke AE
        Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.
        Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2013; 9: 453-466
        • Kapp N
        • Abitbol JL
        • Mathe H
        • Scherrer B
        • Guillard H
        • Gainer E
        • et al.
        Effect of body weight and BMI on the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception.
        Contraception. 2015; 91: 97-104
        • Glasier A
        • Cameron ST
        • Blithe D
        • Scherrer B
        • Mathe H
        • Levy D
        • et al.
        Can we identify women at risk of pregnancy despite using emergency contraception? Data from randomized trials of ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel.
        Contraception. 2011; 84: 363-367