Many women with opioid use disorder (OUD) do not use highly effective postpartum contraception such as long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). We evaluated factors associated with prenatal intent and postpartum receipt of LARC among women receiving medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for OUD.
This was a retrospective cohort study of 791 pregnant women with OUD on MAT who delivered at an academic institution without immediate postpartum LARC services between 2009 and 2012. LARC intent was defined as a documented plan for postpartum LARC during pregnancy and LARC receipt was defined as documentation of LARC placement by 8 weeks postpartum. We organized contraceptive methods into five categories: LARC, female sterilization, short-acting methods, barrier methods and no documented method. Multivariable logistic regression identified characteristics predictive of prenatal LARC intent and postpartum LARC receipt.
Among 791 pregnant women with OUD on MAT, 275 (34.8%) intended to use postpartum LARC and only 237 (29.9%) attended the postpartum visit. Among 275 women with prenatal LARC intent, 124 (45.1%) attended their postpartum visit and 50 (18.2%) received a postpartum LARC. Prenatal contraceptive counseling (OR 6.67; 95% CI 3.21, 13.89) was positively associated with LARC intent. Conversely, older age (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91, 0.98) and private practice provider (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.32, 0.72) were negatively associated with LARC intent. Although parity was not predictive of LARC intent, primiparous patients (CI 0.49; 95% CI 0.26, 0.97) were less likely to receive postpartum LARC.
Discrepancies exist between prenatal intent and postpartum receipt of LARC among pregnant women with OUD on MAT. Immediate postpartum LARC services may reduce LARC access barriers.
Despite prenatal interest in using LARC, most pregnant women with OUD on MAT did not receive postpartum LARC. The provision of immediate postpartum LARC services may reduce barriers to postpartum LARC receipt such as poor attendance at the postpartum visit.
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Published online: August 13, 2018
Accepted: August 5, 2018
Received in revised form: July 20, 2018
Received: April 20, 2018
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