Original Research Article| Volume 108, P56-60, April 2022

Intrauterine device, subdermal contraceptive, and depot medroxyprogesterone use among transmasculine and cisgender patients over a 10-year period



      To describe use of three types of longer-acting contraception—intrauterine devices, subdermal contraceptives, and depot medroxyprogesterone—among transmasculine and cisgender women patients.

      Study Design

      A repeated cross-sectional study using electronic medical records of patients, age 18 to 45, receiving care within Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2009 and 2019. Variations in demographics, clinical characteristics and contraception method uptake were assessed using t tests for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables for patients enrolled in 2019. A linear trend test for each group was used to assess the age-adjusted uptake of contraception methods by study year.


      The transmasculine group was younger, with a mean age of 27.3 years (±7.2) vs 32.5 years (±7.8) years, respectively p < 0.001. The transmasculine group used more tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. The uptake of these contraception methods increased from 2009 to 2019 for both groups (transmasculine: 0.7% to 4.1%; cisgender: 5.6% to 6.7%) with a positive linear trend for both groups (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). The change in uptake of any intrauterine device from 2009 to 2019 was greater for the transmasculine group (0.3% to 2.3% vs 3.3% to 3.5%). Etonogestrel implant uptake had a positive linear trend from 2009 to 2019 for both groups (transmasculine: 0% to 0.5%, p = 0.02, and cisgender 0.1% to 1.2%, p < 0.001).


      Annual uptake of these contraception methods increased significantly for both transmasculine and cisgender groups, and this increase was greater for the transmasculine patients. Uptake of these contraception methods was higher in the cisgender population.


      These findings suggest an improvement in use of long-term contraception and menstrual suppression medications for the transmasculine population. Further research is needed to understand these differences and identify a possible unmet need for intrauterine and subdermal contraceptives and depot medroxyprogesterone use among this often-marginalized population.


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