Condom, modern contraceptive, and dual method use are associated with HIV status and relationship concurrency in a context of high mobility: A cross-sectional study of women of reproductive age in rural Kenya and Uganda, 2016



      Mobility (international/internal migration, and localized mobility) is a key driver of the HIV epidemic. While mobility is associated with higher-risk sexual behavior in women, a possible association with condom, modern contraceptive, and dual method use among women living with HIV (WLHIV), is unknown. In addition, HIV status and sexual behaviors such as relationship concurrency may also affect condom, modern contraceptive, and dual method use.

      Study design

      We surveyed sexually active women (N = 1067) aged 15 to 49 in 12 communities in Kenya and Uganda participating in a test-and-treat trial in 2015 to 2016. Generalized (unordered) multinomial logistic regression models accounting for community clustering examined associations between mobility (overnight travel away from home in past 6 months and any migration within past 2 years) and condom, modern contraceptive (i.e., oral contraceptive pills, injectables, intrauterine devices, implants, vasectomy, tubal ligation; excluding male/female condoms), and dual method use within past 6 months, adjusting for key covariates such as HIV status and relationship concurrency.


      WLHIV relative to HIV-negative women (ratios of relative risk [RRR] = 3.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.40–5.89), and women in concurrent relative to monogamous relationships (RRR = 4.03, 95% CI 1.9–8.50) had higher odds of condom use alone. In contraceptive use models, WLHIV relative to HIV-negative women were less likely to use modern contraceptive methods alone (RRR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36–0.73). Relationship concurrency (RRR = 4.51, 95% CI 2.10–9.67) and HIV status (RRR = 3.97, 95% CI 2.43–6.50) were associated with higher odds of dual method use while mobility was marginally associated with higher odds of dual method use (RRR = 1.65, 95% CI 0.99–2.77, p = 0.057).


      Mobility had a potential impact on dual method use in Kenya and Uganda. In addition, our findings highlight that WLHIV were using condoms and dual methods more, but modern contraceptives less, than HIV-negative women. Those in concurrent relationships were also more likely to use condoms or dual methods. These findings suggest that in a context of high mobility, women may be appropriately assessing risks and taking measures to protect themselves and their partners from unintended pregnancies and acquisition and transmission of HIV.


      Our findings point to a need to strengthen accessibility of sexual and reproductive health services for both mobile and residentially stable women in settings of high mobility and high HIV prevalence.


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