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- The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.Lancet. 2012; 380: 165-167https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60827-7
- Contraception for adolescents in low and middle income countries: needs, barriers, and access.Reprod Health. 2014; 11 (1-1)https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4755-11-1
- Contraception and health.Lancet. 2012; 380: 149-156https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60609-6
High Impact Practices in Family Planning (HIPs). Immediate Postpartum Family Planning: A Key Component of Childbirth Care. USAID; 2017. Accessible at: https://www.fphighimpactpractices.org/briefs/immediate-postpartum-family-planning/21/01/2022 (accessed June 30 2022).
- Family planning: the unfinished agenda.Lancet. 2006; 368: 1810-1827https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69480-4
- Postpartum contraceptive use and unmet need for family planning in five low-income countries.Reprod Health. 2015; (12 Suppl 2Suppl 2S11)https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4755-12-s2-s11
WHO. Program strategies for postpartum family planning. Geneva World Health Organization 2013. Available at Programming strategies for postpartum family planning (who.int) (accessed 30 June 2022).
- Immediate postpartum use of long-acting reversible contraceptives in low- and middle-income countries.Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol. 2017; 3: 24https://doi.org/10.1186/s40748-017-0063-z
World Population Review. Papua New Guinea Population 2022 (Live) Walnut, California: World Population Review; 2022. Available from: https://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/papua-new-guinea-population. (accessed 30 June 2022)
National Statistics Office. Papua New Guinea demographic and health survey 2016–18: key indicators report. Port Moresby National Statistics Office, 2019.
Mola G, Kirby B. Discrepancies between national maternal mortality data and international estimates: the experience of Papua New Guinea. Reprod Health Matters 2013;21(42):191-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0968-8080(13)42725-8
- Measuring unmet need for contraception among women in rural areas of Papua New Guinea.Sex Reprod Health Matters. 2020; 281848004https://doi.org/10.1080/26410397.2020.1848004
National Statistical Office (NSO) Papua New Guinea and ICF. Papua New Guinea Demographic and Health Survey 2016-2018. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NSO and ICF, 2019.
- Community attitudes and gendered influences on decision making around contraceptive implant use in rural Papua New Guinea.Reprod Health. 2020; 17: 136https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-00985-w
- A comparative study of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system Mirena vs the Copper T380A intrauterine device during lactation: breast-feeding performance, infant growth and infant development.Contraception. 2005; 72 (Epub 2005 Jul 6): 346-351https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2005.04.004
- Lactogenesis after early postpartum use of the contraceptive implant.Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 117: 1114-1121
- Implanon on parameters of breastfeeding compared to those of an intrauterine device.Contraception. 2000; 62: 239-246https://doi.org/10.1016/s0010-7824(00)00173-6
Taneepanichskul S, Reinprayoon D, Thaithumyanon P, Praisuwanna P, Tosukhowong P, Diebenet T. Effects of the etonogestrel-releasing implant Implanon and a nonmedicated intrauterine device on the growth of breast-fed infants. Contraception 2006;73(4):368-71. https://doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2005.10.010. Epub 2005 Dec 27.
Blumenthal PD, Goldthwaite LM. Intrauterine Device Insertion During Cesarean Delivery: The Rising Tide of the Postdelivery Intrauterine Device. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2015;126(1):1-2. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000000944.
Mola G. Implant insertions 2016-2022 Port Moresby General Hospital. Personal Communication. June 2022.
Trading Economic. Papua New Guinea- Literacy Rate, Adult Female (% Of Females Ages 15 And Above). Avaliable from https://tradingeconomics.com/papua-new-guinea/literacy-rate-adult-female-percent-of-females-ages-15-and-above-wb-data.html (accessed June 30 2022).
- Excellent Family Planning Progress in Nigeria Reported by PMA2020.Glob Health Sci Pract. 2017; 5: 28-32https://doi.org/10.9745/ghsp-d-17-00094
- Inequities in postnatal care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Bull World Health Organ. 2015; 93 (259-70G)https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.14.140996
- Family planning: choices and challenges for developing countries.Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014; 28: 931-943https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2014.04.014
Austad KE, Shah P, Shryer H, Chary A, Rohloff P. Use of progesterone implants in low-resource settings: preliminary outcomes of a longitudinal cohort of progesterone implant users in rural Guatemala. Contraception 2017;96(4):294. https://doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2017.07.118
Tran NT, Seuc A, Tshikaya B, Mutuale M, Landoulsi S, Kini B, et al. Effectiveness of post-partum family planning interventions on contraceptive use and method mix at 1 year after childbirth in Kinshasa, DR Congo (Yam Daabo): a single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet Glob Health 2020;8(3):e399-e410. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30546-7
Tran NT, Seuc A, Coulibaly A, Landoulsi S, Millogo T , Sissoko F et al. Post-partum family planning in Burkina Faso (Yam Daabo): a two group, multi-intervention, single-blinded, cluster-randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Global Health 2019;7(8):e1109-e17.https://doi
- A systematic review of the effectiveness of counselling strategies for modern contraceptive methods: what works and what doesn’t?.BMJ Sex Reprod Health. 2020; 46: 254-269https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsrh-2019-200377
- A systematic review on clinical effectiveness, side-effect profile and meta-analysis on continuation rate of etonogestrel contraceptive implant.Reprod Health. 2021; 18: 4https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-01054-y
- Twelve month follow-up of a contraceptive implant outreach service in rural Papua New Guinea.Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2017; 57: 213-218https://doi.org/10.1111/ajo.12596
- Impact of the contraceptive implant on maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in rural Papua New Guinea: a retrospective observational cohort study.Contraception. 2019; 100: 42-47https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2019.03.042
Declaration of competing interest:The authors have no conflicts to declare