Original Research Article|Articles in Press, 110001

Men’s willingness to use novel male contraception is linked to gender-equitable attitudes: results from an exploratory online survey

  • Brian T. Nguyen
    Correspondence to: 2020 Zonal Ave. IRD #505, Los Angeles, CA, 90033
    The Lundquist Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA

    Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Tamar L. Jacobsohn
    Contraceptive Development Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Search for articles by this author



      To explore the association of men’s willingness to use a novel male contraceptive method with their attitudes toward gender equity.


      We conducted an anonymous online survey examining willingness to use male contraception among reproductive age (18-50 years) cisgender men from the United States and Canada, recruited via online forums, social media ads, and male contraceptive mailing lists from April through July of 2022. The survey collected socio-demographics and reproductive histories and used a 20-item Gender Equitable Men Scale (GEMS) to examine men’s gender role attitudes. We conducted bivariate analyses to inform a multivariable logistic regression isolating the independent influence of increasingly gender-equitable attitudes on cis-men’s willingness to use novel male contraceptives.


      We received 2,066 surveys from primarily white (n=1,192; 58%), heterosexual (n=1,816; 88%), married cis-men, (n=1,008; 49%), below the age of 30 (n=1,010; 49%), and who had not completed a bachelor’s degree (n=1,173; 57%). The majority reported having sex multiple times per week (n=946; 46%), but had never gotten someone pregnant, (n=907; 44%); nearly half (n=994; 48%) identified as parents. Approximately three-quarters of respondents reported being willing to use a novel male contraceptive method (n=1,545; 75%); willingness was independently linked to having had an abortion (adjOR: 2.04; 95%CI: 1.37-3.02) and increasing total GEMS scores (adjOR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.08), even after controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and education level.


      About three-quarters of cis-men surveyed reported willingness to use new male contraceptives, which was correlated with increasingly gender-equitable attitudes.


      As gender-equitable attitudes are linked to men’s willingness to use novel male contraceptive methods, older population surveys may underestimate male contraceptive demand. Additionally, given the association of abortion experience with willingness to use novel male contraceptives, abortion-providing family planning clinics may be considered for future dissemination of male contraceptive methods.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Contraception
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Kimport K.
        More Than a Physical Burden: Women’s Mental and Emotional Work in Preventing Pregnancy.
        J Sex Res. 2017; : 1-10
        • Reynolds-Wright J.J.
        • Cameron N.J.
        • Anderson R.A.
        Will Men Use Novel Male Contraceptive Methods and Will Women Trust Them? A Systematic Review.
        J Sex Res. 2021; 58: 838-849
        • Behre H.M.
        • Zitzmann M.
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Handelsman D.J.
        • Lestari S.W.
        • McLachlan R.I.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and Safety of an Injectable Combination Hormonal Contraceptive for Men.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016; : jc20162141
        • Heinemann K.
        • Saad F.
        • Wiesemes M.
        • White S.
        • Heinemann L.
        Attitudes toward male fertility control: results of a multinational survey on four continents.
        Human Reproduction. 2005; 20: 549-556
        • Glasier A.F.
        • Anakwe R.
        • Everington D.
        • Martin C.W.
        • Spuy Z.
        • van der, Cheng L.
        • et al.
        Would women trust their partners to use a male pill?.
        Human Reproduction. 2000; 15: 646-649
        • Fennell J.L.
        Men bring condoms, women take pills: Men’s and women’s roles in contraceptive decision making.
        Gender and Society. 2011; 25: 496-521
      1. For Father’s Day, 8 facts about American dads | Pew Research Center n.d. 〈〉 (accessed September 2, 2022 ).

        • Grady W.R.
        • Tanfer K.
        • Billy J.O.G.
        • Lincoln-Hanson J.
        Men’s Perceptions of Their Roles and Responsibilities Regarding Sex, Contraception and Childrearing.
        Fam Plann Perspect. 1996; 28: 221-226
        • Campo-Engelstein L.
        Gender Norms and Contraceptive Trusts.
        Albany Law J Sci Technol. 2013; : 23
        • Nguyen B.T.
        • Zaller N.
        • Alpert W.
        Male Access to Over-the-Counter Emergency Contraception. A Survey of Acceptability and Barriers in Providence, Rhode Island.
        Women’s Health Issues. 2009; 19: 365-372
        • Nguyen BTBT Zaller N.
        Pharmacy provision of emergency contraception to men: A survey of pharmacist attitudes in Rhode Island.
        Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. 2017; 50 (24a–23)
        • Korn E.A.
        • Nguyen B.T.
        • Heyrana K.J.
        • Cleland K.
        Surveying the persistence of age- and gender-based restrictions on over-the-counter emergency contraception across pharmacies in Los Angeles County, CA.
        Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. 2022; : 0
        • Newton S.L.
        • Hebert L.E.
        • Nguyen B.T.
        • Gilliam M.L.
        Negotiating Masculinity in a Women’s Space: Findings from a Qualitative Study of Male Partners Accompanying Women at the Time of Abortion.
        Men Masc. 2020; : 23
        • Nguyen B.T.
        • Hebert L.E.
        • Newton S.L.
        • Gilliam M.L.
        Supporting Women at the Time of Abortion: A Mixed-Methods Study of Male Partner Experiences and Perspectives.
        Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2018; 50: 75-83
        • Nguyen B.T.
        • Jacobsohn T.L.
        Post-abortion contraception, an opportunity for male partners and male contraception.
        Contraception. 2022;
        • Peterson L.M.
        • Campbell M.A.T.
        • Laky Z.E.
        The next frontier for men’s contraceptive choice: College men’s willingness to pursue male hormonal contraception.
        Psychology of Men & Masculinities. 2019; 20: 226-237
      2. Gough H. Some factors related to men’s stated willingness to use a male contraceptive pill. 〈Http://DxDoiOrg/101080/00224497909551021〉 2010 ;15:27–37.

        • Weinstein S.A.
        • Goebel G.
        The Relationship between Contraceptive Sex Role Stereotyping and Attitudes toward Male Contraception among Males.
        The Journal of Sex Research. 1979; 15: 235-242
      3. Pulerwitz J. , Barker G. Measuring Attitudes toward Gender Norms among Young Men in Brazil: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the GEM Scale. 〈Http://DxDoiOrg/101177/1097184X06298778〉 2007 ;10:322–38.

        • Wesson P.D.
        • Lippman S.A.
        • Neilands T.B.
        • Ahern J.
        • Kahn K.
        • Pettifor A.
        Evaluating the Validity and Reliability of the Gender Equitable Men’s Scale Using a Longitudinal Cohort of Adolescent Girls and Young Women in South Africa.
        AIDS Behav. 2022; 26: 775-785
        • Nanda G.
        Compendium of Gender Scales.
        Washington DC, 2011
        • Roth M.Y.
        • Shih G.
        • Ilani N.
        • Wang C.
        • Page S.T.
        • Bremner W.J.
        • et al.
        Acceptability of a transdermal gel-based male hormonal contraceptive in a randomized controlled trial.
        Contraception. 2014; 90: 407-412
        • Nguyen B.T.
        • Yuen F.
        • Farrant M.
        • Thirumalai A.
        • Fernando F.
        • Amory J.K.
        • et al.
        Acceptability of the oral hormonal male contraceptive prototype, 11β-Methyl-19-nortestosterone dodecylcarbonate (11β-MNTDC), in a 28-day placebo-controlled trial.
        Contraception. 2021;
        • Nguyen B.T.
        • Farrant M.T.
        • Anawalt B.D.
        • Yuen F.
        • Thirumalai A.
        • Amory J.K.
        • et al.
        Acceptability of oral dimethandrolone undecanoate in a 28-day placebo-controlled trial of a hormonal male contraceptive prototype.
        Contraception. 2020; 102: 52-57
      4. Study of Daily Application of Nestorone® (NES) and Testosterone (T) Combination Gel for Male Contraception - Tabular View - n.d. 〈〉 (accessed February 8, 2023 ).

        • Yuen F.
        • Nguyen B.T.
        • Swerdloff R.S.
        • Wang C.
        Continuing the search for a hormonal male contraceptive.
        Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2020; 66: 83-94
        • Latack K.R.
        • Yuen F.
        • Wang C.
        • Nguyen B.T.
        Online community queries on hormonal male contraception: An analysis of the Reddit “Ask Me Anything” experience.
        Contraception. 2021;
        • Oudshoorn N.
        The male pill: a biography of a technology in the making. 2003; : 306
        • Finer L.B.
        • Frohwirth L.F.
        • Dauphinee L.A.
        • Singh S.
        • Moore A.M.
        Reasons US women have abortions: quantitative and qualitative perspectives.
        Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2005; 37: 110-118
        • Jacobsohn T.
        • Nguyen B.T.
        • Brown J.E.
        • Thirumalai A.
        • Massone M.
        • Page S.T.
        • et al.
        Male contraception is coming: Who do men want to prescribe their birth control.
        Contraception. 2022;
        • Heyrana K.
        • Nguyen B.
        • Santiano C.
        • Chun E.
        P015Acculturative processes in the generation and evolution of family planning stigma: Lessons from the los angeles filipinx/a/o family planning study.
        Contraception. 2022; 116: 77
        • Martin C.W.
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Cheng L.
        • Ho P.C.
        • van derSpuy Z.
        • Smith K.B.
        • et al.
        Potential impact of hormonal male contraception: cross-cultural implications for development of novel preparations.
        Human Reproduction. 2000; 15: 637-645
        • Nguyen B.T.
        • Long M.
        • Petrosyan N.
        • Grundy D.
        • Mahoney B.
        • Heyrana K.J.
        Access to male sexual and reproductive health services in publicly funded California clinics in 2018.
        Contraception. 2021; 104: 165-169
        • Li V.M.
        • Heyrana K.J.
        • Nguyen B.T.
        Discrepant abortion reporting by interview methodology among men from the United States National Survey of Family Growth (2015-2017.
        Contraception. 2022;
        • Nguyen B.T.
        • Shih G.
        • Turok D.K.
        Putting the man in contraceptive mandate.
        Contraception. 2014; 89: 3-5