Changes in the physical characteristics of semen and ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of langur monkeys after vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride (SMA), a polymer with pH-lowering action, are reported. Vas occlusion resulted in severe reversible hypospermia. Severe oligospermia was observed in the majority of animals (five of eight) in the first ejaculation, 30 days after vas occlusion, and in two animals in the second ejaculation, 60 days after vas occlusion. Subsequent monthly ejaculations for 5 months revealed uniform azoospermia. The voided spermatozoa were immotile and supravital staining confirmed necrospermia. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed severe coiling of tail, rupture of acrosomal envelope, and bent midpiece associated with damaged mitochondrial sheath. Observations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed vacuolization in the nucleus, membrane damage in the acrosome, loss of segmented columns, and numeric aberrations in the centriole of the neck, as well as degeneration of mitochondrial sheath and axoneme in the midpiece, and absence of outer plasma membrane in the midpiece and tail. The results indicate that the necrospermic status of the spermatozoa during initial ejaculations may offer instant sterility after vas occlusion with SMA.
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Accepted: January 5, 1998
Received in revised form: December 23, 1997
Received: October 23, 1997
© 1998 Elsevier Science Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.